Frogs have been used as research models for many years their physiology is relatively simple when compared to mammals, and the study of frog muscles in the 1920's led to the discovery that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine was responsible for relaying nerve impluses signaling movement to the muscles.
Whole retina of the frog thus, there are four distinct parallel dis-tributed channelswherebythefrog's eyeinformshisbrainaboutthe visual image in terms of local pattern independent of average illumination wedescribe the patterns andshowthe functional and anatomical separation of the channels thisworkhasbeendone on thefrog, andourinterpretationappliesonlytothefrog. “what the frog’s eye tells the frog’s brain,” which he’d published a decade earlier, was “viewed as a seminal paper in cognitive science,” according to his longtime colleague joel moses, institute professor of electrical engineering and computer science.
2 perceptual research requires new methods of questions taking into full account logical types and levels of learning, evolution and how information and communication act upon themselves the inflection point of second-order cybernetics occurred with the publication of what the frog's eye tells the frog's brain (lettvin et al 1959.
What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain † j y lettvin,‡ h r maturana,§ w s mcculloch,‡ and w h pitts‡ i introduction a behavior of a frog a frog hunts on land by vision he escapes enemies mainly by seeing them his eyes do not move, as do ours, to follow prey, attend suspicious events, or search for things of interest.
Thus, there are four distinct parallel distributed channels whereby the frog’s eye informs his brain about the visual image in terms of local pattern independent of average illumination we describe the patterns and show the functional and anatomical separation of the channels.
Epistemic luck, naturalistic epistemology and the ecology of knowledge or what the frog should have told dretske carolyn r morillo - 1984 - philosophical studies 46 (1):109-129 book review:the ambiguous frog: the galvani-volta controversy on animal electricity marcello pera, jonathan mandelbaum.